1. With the breath ("hoooo" , "haaaa" , "heeee"), and with the tongue ("doooo" , "daaaa" , "deeee"). (The vowel used depends on the tongue shape required for voicing (more about this in Lesson 10.)
3. Loss of tone quality, poor timing, not a clean note attack.
4. Fast alternating reed and throat closures like "dugudugu" or "tukutuku" only used for very fast passages.
2. The front edge of the reed.
3. The flat underside of the reed. The exception is so called "slap tonguing" where the tongue slaps against the underside of the reed. This was used during the early Jazz period to produce comic sound effects.
4. This depends on the relative size of the tongue. A short tongue touches against the reed with its tip. A longer tongue touches the reed edge with a point beyond the tongue tip.
5. The back of the tongue should be kept forward so that it does not block the throat. This is why the right choice for B.4 above is important.
6. The tip functions as articulation valve. The bulk of the tongue shape is used for voicing of the note.
2. The air pressure in the mouth remains constant from one breath to the next, regardless of note articulations or (non breathing) rests in between.
3. A clean note attack, good timing of the note, an instantaneous good tone.
2. "dat" or "dot" or "dit"
3. Slurred passages, indicated by a slur over a series of notes on the music score. Here only the first note is tongued, while the following note(s) flow on from the same breath.
4. Because of the double function of the tongue. First practise tone exercises without the tongue in order to find the optimum shape for voicing. Later practise the exercises with the tongue and try to maintain the optimum tongue voicing shape while articulating with the tongue tip.
Copyright © 2002 Michael Furstner (Jazclass). All rights reserved.